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Wednesday, November 9

  1. page DiffusionLit edited ... Thompson (2006) Surendra (2001) ... Upton (2000) Surendra (2001) Johnson (2001)
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    Thompson (2006)
    Surendra (2001)
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    Upton (2000)
    Surendra (2001)
    Johnson (2001)
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    7:08 am

Friday, April 6

  1. page OnlineCosts edited ... model. (Doctoral Dissertation, Seton Hall University, 2003) Retrieved March 20, 2008, from Pr…
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    model. (Doctoral Dissertation, Seton Hall University, 2003) Retrieved March 20, 2008,
    from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3136108).
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ind_tsrM2M0
    Setzer, J. C. and Lewis, L. (2005). Distance education courses for public elementary and
    secondary school students: 2002-2003. National Center for Education Statistics.
    (view changes)

Thursday, January 12

  1. page OnlineCosts edited ... SUMMARY - Cost Items for Online Schools The purpose of this review of literature is to examin…
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    SUMMARY - Cost Items for Online Schools
    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the cost items for online learning in K-12 education in the United States, to inform K-12 school districts of the cost items, and ways that online schools are being funded in the United States. Many reports have been issued highlighting the costs and cost items for online learning and establishing and maintaining virtual schools. However, there are limited reports or articles written comparing the costs of brick-and-mortar with online schools. This review of literature focuses on the cost items for virtual schools and a comparison of cost items for brick-and-mortar schools, online schools, and which costs are the same for both. After a brief history and growth of K-12 online learning and a discussion of the effectiveness of online learning, the bulk of this review of literature will focus on the cost items for implementing and maintaining an online school. Appendix 1 identifies all of the cost components for an online school and how they may be applied in establishing an online school in one school district.
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    Online Learning
    Otto Peters was one of the first to make important contributions to distance education theory and described “an industrialized theory for distance-teaching organizations” in 1967. (Beaudoin, 2003). The print version of distance education, known as “correspondence courses” was first developed at the University of Chicago in 1891 (Greenway and Vanourek, 2006).
    One of the first reports that documented K-12 online learning described the statewide developing virtual school programs in Florida, Kentucky, Michigan, New Mexico and Utah (Clark, 2000). In this report, Clark set the framework from which all other K-12 online learning research would emanate. For, without any K-12 virtual schools, there would be no students or teachers to study or research. Thus, K-12 online schools are just 11 years old, and the research regarding online schools began after 1997.
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    Cost Item Chart
    {darrowcostitemchart_apr2008.jpg}
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    courses financed?
    In one of the first reports about the cost items for K-12 virtual schools, Cavaluzzo (2001) identified how virtual schools are financed. In Florida, there is no charge for virtual school courses, in Kentucky, the schools pay the price for students to attend at a price of $500 per year long course or individual districts may pass the cost on to parents; in West Virginia, the state pays 75% of the cost of an online course while the local district or parents pay the difference. The ways that online course costs can be paid include: state appropriation, percentage formula of regular student full-time-equivalency (FTE) or average-daily-attendance (ADA), grants from individuals or foundations, schools, parents, or any combination of the above (Anderson et al, 2006). Generally, throughout the United States, the FTE model for student apportionment or something similar exists in every state and was developed for brick-and-mortar schools. A student must be present in order to collect each day of apportionment. The student apportionment is all or none – either the student is present or he is not - only full time students are financed through these state funded models. In California, 60% of local public school funding comes from the state allocated through the ADA process, which is based on the number of days each student attends school (Freedman, Darrow and Watson, 2002). There have been two laws passed in California that attempt to allow ADA to be used for funding online schools – AB 885 (2001) and AB 294 (2003). However, the bill known as the “online classroom pilot program” ended in 2007 and no subsequent bills have been passed by the state legislature. Any state or school district will want to identify how online courses will be financed so the school can be sustained in the long term.
    In higher education institutions, the funding model follows a different model than in K-12 education. Most 2-year and 4-year colleges receive funds based on the number of students who enroll in a single course (Taylor et al, 2001). However, the start up cost item items for developing and maintaining online courses and the course management system is the same in higher education as it is in K-12 education. Higher education has the similar dilemma of how to finance course development by faculty members and how to meet the ongoing costs of teaching online courses while following state mandated funding guidelines and demonstrating how online courses are cost effective (Taylor et al, 2001).
    Other ideas for financing online courses have developed over the last ten years. One is VHS, Inc., an online high school program that originally was financed through a federal technology innovation challenge grant. This cooperative model requires schools to pay a $6,000 per year membership fee, provide a teacher to teach an online course and, in exchange, up to 20 students from that school may take any of the 200 online courses offered by VHS, Inc. In a cooperative, costs are lower because instead of paying tuition, per student, the number of course offerings is balanced with the number of students participating. (Sack, 2003). Secondly, the open educational resource movement is making the tools and content for online learning less costly. (Downes, 2007) . The open source movement is perceived as a culture, an ideology, and potentially, a way for humans to better work together on shared pursuits such as online content or course management platforms (Couros, 2006).
    For any online school ventures – whether K-12 or higher education, there are initial start up costs. These include administration, teachers, academic coordination/teacher training, course content, public information, technology, student services, finances, evaluation, facilities, and unanticipated costs (SREB, 2006). Depending on the overall design, some of these costs can be ongoing or one time. All of these cost factors need to be considered in the overall system for the implementation, maintenance and sustainability of an online school.
    References
    Adsit,, J. (2004). Estimated cost of operating a cyberschool in Colorado. Colorado
    Cyberschool Association. Retrieved March 10, 2008 from
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    Greenway, R. and Vanourek, G. (2006). Virtual revolution: understanding online schools.
    Education Next. Stanford University, Hoover Institution. Retrieved March 30, 2008
    from http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext/3210506.html. (via fha home loans minneapolis mn)
    Hargadon, S. (2007). Susan Patrick on online learning. Message posted March 9, 2007
    http://www.stevehargadon.com/2007/03/susan-patrick-on- online-learning-school.html.
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    Picciano, A. G. and Seaman, J. (2007). K-12 online learning: a survey of U.S. school district
    administrators. Hunter College and Graduate Center of the City University of New York,
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRYdQdKQ5AM
    Olin and Babson Colleges. The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from
    http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/K-12_06.asp.
    (view changes)

Friday, April 29

  1. 6:33 am

Tuesday, April 26

  1. page home edited ... More about Rob: robdarrow.wikispaces.com Dissertation Documents (Organized with blog posts, …
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    More about Rob: robdarrow.wikispaces.com
    Dissertation Documents (Organized with blog posts, April 2011)
    {11a.DarrowDiss.Appendices.dropouts.pdf}
    {11c.DarrowDiss.App.CaOlCharters.pdf}
    {DarrowDissertation.OLinCa.May2010.pdf}
    Dropout Factors. {11a.DarrowDiss.Appendices.dropouts.pdf}
    California Online Charter School List. {11c.DarrowDiss.App.CaOlCharters.pdf}
    Dr. Rob Darrow's Dissertation. {DarrowDissertation.OLinCa.May2010.pdf}
    :
    Darrow, R. W. (2010). A comparative study between online charter high schools and traditional high schools in California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno –United States.
    __**Final Defense - April, 2010**__ (including Ppt presentation and Elluminate)
    (view changes)
    7:00 am
  2. page home edited ... {11a.DarrowDiss.Appendices.dropouts.pdf} {11c.DarrowDiss.App.CaOlCharters.pdf} Rob's Diss…
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    {11a.DarrowDiss.Appendices.dropouts.pdf}
    {11c.DarrowDiss.App.CaOlCharters.pdf}
    Rob's Dissertation:{DarrowDissertation.OLinCa.May2010.pdf} :
    Darrow, R. W. (2010). A comparative study between online charter high schools and traditional high schools in California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno –United States.
    __**Final Defense - April, 2010**__ (including Ppt presentation and Elluminate)
    (view changes)
    6:58 am
  3. page home edited ... {11a.DarrowDiss.Appendices.dropouts.pdf} {11c.DarrowDiss.App.CaOlCharters.pdf} Rob's Diss…
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    {11a.DarrowDiss.Appendices.dropouts.pdf}
    {11c.DarrowDiss.App.CaOlCharters.pdf}
    Rob's Dissertation:
    Darrow, R. W. (2010). A comparative study between online charter high schools and traditional high schools in California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno –United States.

    __**Final Defense - April, 2010**__ (including Ppt presentation and Elluminate)
    Other Documents Completed During Doctorate Courses
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    6:57 am
  4. page home edited ... Stuff from 2007-2010 CSU 2007-2012 (CSU Fresno Doctoral robdarrow [at] mail.fresnosta…

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    Stuff from 2007-2010
    CSU
    2007-2012
    (CSU
    Fresno Doctoral
    robdarrow [at] mail.fresnostate.edu * http://robdarrow.wordpress.com
    More about Rob: robdarrow.wikispaces.com
    (view changes)
    6:54 am
  5. 6:50 am

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